Last Universal Common Ancestor
A resident of Westbury, NY, Valerie Varnuska enjoys the fitness benefits of the natural world and has a passion for watching the stars. Another of Valerie Varnuska’s interests is paleontology, which focuses on the fossil record of plants and animals and provides a better understanding of the earth’s past.
A recent Forbes article brought attention to landmark discoveries of 2018, including the positing of a Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). A single-celled organism that likely resembled a bacterium, LUCA cannot be less than 3.9 million years old, as this is the moment at which key splits encompassing 102 species and 29 genes first occurred. At the same time, LUCA may be significantly older than 3.9 million years and may indeed extend to 4.5 billion years and the formation of Earth.
Another study involved building a database spanning 3,000 fish fossils from between 480 to 360 million years old. A key finding was that the oldest vertebrate fossils developed in environments close to the shore, including lagoons and tidal zones. Their descendants then fanned out across the ocean. One impetus for this evolution may have been waves constantly crashing along the shore, which necessitated stronger skeletons and a backbone.
A Westbury, New York, resident, Valerie Varnuska is an arts and nature enthusiast and avid stargazer. Valerie Varnuska has a strong interest in the night sky and follows developments in the astronomy realm.
As reported in Astronomy magazine, recent research at the Canary Islands’ Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias indicates that stars that emit high ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels may strip the atmospheres of nearby exoplanets. Observing a number of close orbiting gas giants, astronomers discovered that radiation bombardments were causing a loss of helium. They theorize that this peeling away of clouds results in planets that are barren, rocky, and dense in composition.
If it holds, the theory could prove invaluable in enabling astronomers to compare exoplanet atmospheres and gain a fuller understanding of how they evolve, depending on their distance from their host stars.
Valerie Varnuska of Westbury, NY, enjoys astronomy and cooking. Valerie Varnuska is also a lover of the outdoors and nature, and enjoys being near the ocean.
Studies have proven time and time again that spending time in nature provides physical, emotional, and mental health benefits. However, much of this research has been focused on how access to open green spaces and water promotes healthy exercise and relaxing activities. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in how being near water can affect the human brain and body.
According to a 2016 study by researchers at Michigan State University, individuals who live near a body of water report lower stress levels. Interestingly, the study did not find the same benefit for individuals who live near green spaces, leading the researchers to conclude that simply looking at bodies of water can provide a calming effect.
This research reinforces what other psychologists and scientists have asserted over the years. One researcher, Walter Nichols, suggested that humans have a “blue mind,” which is his term for the meditative state that is triggered by the sight of water. Additionally, multiple sleep studies have indicated that the sound of running water or waves can improve sleep quality.
As a passionate member of the natural science community, Valerie Varnuska of Westbury, NY, enjoys reading about astronomy. Astronomy buffs like Valerie Varnuska are often the first to become aware of new developments in the study of space, including its history, current happenings, and new discoveries.
While many think of stars as unmoving celestial bodies, recent research indicates that a red dwarf star called Scholz’s star came within one light year of our solar system approximately 70,000 years ago. For perspective, this is more than four times closer than the sun’s current closest neighbor, Proxima Centauri.
The first research suggesting this phenomenon looked at the star’s current motion and velocity and extrapolated backward. Other research coming from the Complutense University of Madrid, however, looked at the hyperbolic, or V-shaped, orbits of some objects within the solar system. Many of these objects are projected in the direction of the constellation of Gemini, which would fit the model of an encounter with Scholz’s star. This close encounter does not explain all objects on hyperbolic orbits, however, which means other explanations are necessary to capture the full picture of unusual objects in the solar system.
Meteoroids and Shooting Stars
Based in Westbury, NY, Valerie Varnuska has an appreciation for the outdoors and enjoys exploring the natural landscape around her. Valerie Varnuska also maintains a strong interest in stargazing and enjoys learning about the principles of astronomy that define natural phenomena across the universe.
Seeing a shooting star is a memorable experience for stargazers of all ages. Despite the name, however, this phenomenon does not actually involve any stars. The streaks of light are due to meteoroids, which are composed of tiny rock and dust particles that burn up as they enter the Earth’s atmosphere. The trail of light that forms is called a meteor, while remaining objects that survive entry into the atmosphere and land on terra firma are known as meteorites.
Meteor showers are common at specific times of the year when the Earth, during its orbit of the Sun, passes through a debris trail that has been left behind by an orbiting comet. These showers take their names from the constellation that inhabits the area of the night sky where the shooting stars appear. For example, the Leonid Meteor Shower originates in the part of the sky inhabited by Leo.